Prevalence of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Need in Children and Adolescents in Bogota, Columbia
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion in a population of Bogotanian children and adolescents in terms of different degrees of severity in relation to sex and specific stages of dental development, in order to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment in this part of Colombia. A sample of 4724 children (5-17 years of age) was randomly selected from a population that attended the Dental Health Service; none had been orthodontically treated. Based on their dental stages the subjects were grouped into deciduous, early mixed, late mixed and permanent dentition. The registrations were performed according to a method by Bjork et al. (1964). The need for orthodontic treatment was evaluated according to an index used by the Swedish National Board of Health.
The results showed that 88 percent of the subjects had some type of anomaly, from mild to severe, half of them recorded as occlusal anomalies, one-third as space discrepancies, and one-fifth as dental anomalies. No clear sex differences were noted, except for maxillary overjet, spacing, tooth size (all more frequent in boys), and crowding (more frequent in girls). Occlusal anomalies and space discrepancies varied in the different dental developmental periods, as did tipped and rotated teeth.
Little need for orthodontic treatment was found in 35 percent and moderate need in 30 percent. A great need was estimated in 20 percent, comprising children with pre-normal occlusion, maxillary overjet, or overbite (>6 mm), posterior unilateral crossbite with midline deviation (>2 mm), severe crowding or spacing, congenitally missing maxillary incisors, impacted maxillary canines or anterior open bite (>3 mm in the permanent dentition). Urgent need for treatment was estimated to be 3 percent, comprising subjects with extreme post and pre-normal occlusion, impacted maxillary incisors or extensive aplasia.